Religious Diversity in the Middle East, Africa, and Latin America


The social constructionist view of religion is not concerned with the existence of a supernatural being but rather focuses on the meaning of religion. They argue that religion differs for different people, different societies, and different times. These differences can be seen in three dimensions: historical, contemporaneous, and cross-cultural. These changes in religion can take place within one society, or between two societies.

Religious intolerance

Religious intolerance can be defined as the rejection of the truth of another religion. The opposite of intolerance is tolerance, which means accepting that some people are different and others are not. Tolerance is the key to guaranteeing harmonious coexistence among different religious groups and institutions.

Religious intolerance in Europe

Religious intolerance is a serious problem in Europe that violates human rights and threatens democracy. In the past, religious intolerance in Europe has led to genocide and the Holocaust. Human rights organizations call for the elimination of intolerance and the promotion of freedom of thought and religion.

Religious intolerance in the Middle East

The history of religious intolerance in the Middle East is not one of a single conflict or event. Instead, it involves a variety of factors that have contributed to the resurgence of religious intolerance, including the rise of Islamist fundamentalism. The historical roots of this type of intolerance are difficult to pin down, but they are rooted in a variety of political and philosophical histories.

Religious diversity in Africa

Africa is a continent of religious diversity. Over one-fourth of the African population is Muslim, making up roughly 1/4 of the world’s total population. Islam has its roots in Africa and the early followers of the Prophet Muhammad fled to the region to escape persecution by pagan Arabs. In addition, Islam spread from Africa to other parts of the world through the influence of Arab traders and sailors.

Religious diversity in Latin America

Religious diversity in Latin America presents a range of socio-political, historical, and legal contexts. These are discussed in an accessible manner, with a focus on the region’s diversity and intersectionality.

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